Libyans on Friday marked one year since the February 17 "Day of Rage" that sparked the months of revolt that brought down longtime leader Muammar Gaddafi. Thousands gathered in the main square of the former rebel stronghold of Benghazi.
AFP - Libyans celebrated on Friday the first anniversary of the uprising against Moamer Kadhafi with fireworks and slogans, even as their new leader vowed to prevent further instability.
Thousands gathered in Tahrir (Liberation) Square in Benghazi, the city which first rose against Kadhafi and his 42-year regime, after traditional Muslim prayers, waving Libya's new flag and proclaiming the revolution's "birthday."
Libya's rulers have not organised official celebrations at a national level as a mark of respect for the thousands of people killed in the conflict that saw Kadhafi captured and slain on October 20.
But spontaneous commemorations began nationwide, as former rebels, who toppled Kadhafi last year with NATO backing, set up fresh checkpoints in Tripoli, Benghazi, the western port city of Misrata and other towns.
In Tahrir Square, mothers held pictures of their sons killed in the fighting, while singers and poets performed for the crowds.
Nearly everyone wore the red, black and green colours of the new Libya.
A Libyan flag said to be 17 kilometres (10.5 miles) long and about three metres (nine feet) wide was carried along the corniche to the square. It was impossible to verify the length, but the banner stretched off into the distance and out of sight.
"This is the first birthday of Libya. It is a day of freedom, a day to remember. The days ahead will be better now that Kadhafi is gone," said Malek L Sahad, a Libyan-American rap singer who returned to his native country last year.
Former army colonel Idris Rashid, 50, said the difference between the new Libya and the old was "like the difference between the sky and the earth."
"We were living before, but never knew the meaning of life. Today we can feel the breeze of freedom," he told AFP.
Libyan ruler Mustafa Abdel Jalil was expected to attend a function in Benghazi later on Friday to mark the anniversary of the revolution, along with interim Prime Minister Abdel Rahim al-Kib and other dignitaries.
Thuwar, or revolutionaries, were deployed across the city to ensure the celebrations went peacefully, and Abdel Jalil warned on Thursday that Libya's revolutionary spirit and stability would not be compromised.
"We will be tough towards people who threaten our stability."
Tripoli resident Naima Misrati said traffic police and former rebels were distributing leaflets, warning people against thinking of carrying out attacks, which said: "We cannot bring back the buried man (Kadhafi) but we can send you to him."
The pro-Kadhafi Libyan Popular National Movement posted a statement on several websites saying the situation in Libya "is becoming worse every day."
"There's very little interest from the international media in the many horrors that have taken place. We are reorganising ourselves outside Libya in an inclusive political movement that would encompass all Libyans who understand the terrible reality of Libya," it said.
One year after the uprising, Libya is battling challenges ranging from how to tame the rowdy militias that fought Kadhafi to establishing a new rule of law.
Thousands of people were killed or wounded in the conflict, the country's vital oil production ground to a halt, and homes, businesses, factories, schools and hospitals were devastated.
But the most immediate headache is how to control the tens of thousands of ex-rebels who have now turned into powerful militias, whose jealously guarded commitment to their honour and power occasionally erupts into deadly clashes.
Global human rights organisations Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and Doctors Without Borders have accused militias of torturing their prisoners, most of whom are former pro-Kadhafi fighters.
UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon on Friday urged "all Libyans to stand together in a spirit of reconciliation."
"A revolution in the name of human rights must not be tarnished by abuses but must bring about justice through rule of law," Ban said.
The White House called on Libya's rulers to protect the freedoms and rights of the country's citizens.
"Protecting the rights of all the Libyan people will help preserve the unity of purpose that defined the revolution," spokesman Jay Carney said, while also encouraging ex-rebels to work with the government "to establish stability, peace, and reconciliation."
Prime Minister Kib has acknowledged that integrating thee militias into security services is a "complex" issue, but his government said on Thursday that about 5,000 of them had already been integrated.